Database management is the method for managing information that supports the company’s business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications and editing it as required as well as monitoring changes in data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is one component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a collection of tables that organizes data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of fields called attributes that contain information about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most popular database type today. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to change many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns, such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of different external views (based on the different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.